Walcir Soares da Silva Junior


Este artigo tem como objetivo apresentar uma introdução ao tema das competências socioemocionais (também conhecidas como habilidades não-cognitivas) e sua relação com a fronteira de pesquisa em economia da educação. Habilidades são competências que possuem algum nível de maleabilidade durante a vida e podem ser divididas em dois grupos principais: habilidades cognitivas e competências socioemocionais. Habilidades cognitivas têm como medida mais próxima o QI (relacionadas comumente à capacidade de raciocínio e lógica). Apesar de muito valorizadas no âmbito educacional por sua associação com diversos resultados positivos, evidências neurocientíficas mostram que essas habilidades se estabilizam por volta dos dez anos de idade. Já a habilidades ou competências socioemocionais são traços relacionados à motivação, disciplina, criatividade, resiliência e autoestima. Estudos mostram que algumas dessas competências além de serem mais maleáveis durante a adolescência e vida adulta, são pelo menos tão importantes ou mais do que as habilidades cognitivas na predição de resultados positivos. Este artigo apresenta a maneira pela qual essas habilidades são comumente classificadas na literatura, e seus principais resultados associados em termos de desempenho educacional, saúde e violência.

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